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This article will help you understand and build your knowledge of the .htaccess file you see when you run an Apache Web Server like ours.
===Change the Default Directory Index File===
It can be used to chnage the default index file which is normally index.html, index.ext... to anything like foo.ext or whatever name/extension you prefer. To do this, use:
<&lt;pre>&gt;DirectoryIndex foo.ext home.html home.php foo.php<&lt;/pre>&gt;
===Customizing Error Handling/Error Pages===
If you have ever wondered how people chnage their 404, 500... error pages to something like lost.ext, then you will like this code in your .htaccess file:
<&lt;pre>&gt;<&lt;nowiki>&gt;
ErrorDocument [Error Number] [Error Document]
Error Document 404 /404.html
<&lt;/nowiki>&gt;<&lt;/pre> &gt;
Where [Error Number] is replaced with the error number, and [Error Document] is replaced with the path fo the error document which can be internal or external as in:
<&lt;pre>&gt;http://www.anothersite.com/foo.ext or /foo.ext<&lt;/pre>&gt;
===Server Generated URL Redirects===
You moved or renamed a directory and you know people still have the old directory bookmarked so you want them to be redirected to the new directory, then you can use this code:
<&lt;pre>&gt;Redirect [Trigger] [New Destination]
Redirect /old http://www.url.com/new
Redirect /old /new<&lt;/pre>&gt;
===Limiting Access by Hostname/IP Address===
Use this section of this article if you are intrested in blocking access to a file/folder on your server:
<&lt;pre>&gt;<&lt;Files admin.cgi>&gt;
order deny, allow
deny from ALL
allow from 1.2.3.4
<&lt;/Files>&gt;<&lt;/pre> &gt; This example denies access to admin.cgi to everyone but the owner of the IP Address mention in ''1.2.3.4''. You can also use this for a folder, in that case you would replace admin.cgi with the name of the folder. If you are intrested in using the Hostname rather than the IP then use:<&lt;pre>&gt;<&lt;Files admin.cgi>&gt;
order deny, allow
deny from ALL
allow from mymachine.networkdomain.com
<&lt;/Files>&gt;<&lt;/pre>&gt;
You can also use it for your whole network to have access to it alone, example:
<&lt;pre>&gt;
# IP Number
<&lt;Files admin.cgi>&gt;
order deny, allow
deny from ALL
allow from 192.168.123
<&lt;/Files>&gt;
# Hostname
<&lt;Files admin.cgi>&gt;
order deny, allow
deny from ALL
allow from .networkdomain.com
<&lt;/Files>&gt;<&lt;/pre>&gt;
Where ''192.168.123'' is your internal network IP and .networkdomain.com is your Hostname/Domain. You can also switch it to allow from ALL and deny from a list of IPs or Hostnames.Here is a pratical example for advance users:
<&lt;pre>&gt;<&lt;Files [/path/filename]>&gt;
[Attributes to apply to file...]
<&lt;/files>&gt;<&lt;/pre>&gt;
===Limiting Access by User===
This part lets you use a .htaccess/.htpasswd user login system that uses cookies. It is not fully safe because the session does not expire until all open broswers are closed so try not to use it much on your site section that needs foul proof security. Here is the code:
<&lt;pre>&gt;
AuthType Basic
AuthName "&quot;Restricted Access"&quot;
AuthUserFile /htpasswd/path/to/.htpasswd
Require valid-user
<&lt;/pre>&gt;For this example you places a .htpasswd file in the path (/htpasswd/path/to/). In the .htpasswd file will be: <&lt;pre>&gt;[user]:[password]<&lt;/pre> &gt; Normally you have to encrypt the password but if you are using The [[Uniform_Server|Uniform Server]], then you do not need to do that. You ca also use this example to protect another directory from just 1 .htaccess file:<&lt;pre>&gt;<&lt;Directory /path/to/>&gt;
AuthType Basic
AuthName "&quot;Restricted Access"&quot;
AuthUserFile /htpasswd/path/to/.htpasswd
Require valid-user
<&lt;/Directory>&gt;<&lt;/pre> &gt;
If you are intrested in doing this for just specific files then use:
<&lt;pre>&gt;<&lt;Files /path/to/file.ext>&gt;
AuthType Basic
AuthName "&quot;Restricted Access"&quot;
AuthUserFile /htpasswd/path/to/.htpasswd
Require valid-user
<&lt;/Files>&gt;<&lt;/pre>&gt;
The ''Require'' statement is used to list valid users or groups of users so if you just want 1 .htpasswd file, but want multiple protected areas, then you can use:
<&lt;pre>&gt;Require user username1 username2 username3...<&lt;/pre>&gt;
Or if you want to use it in groups then you can use:
<&lt;pre>&gt;
AuthGroupFile /htgorups/path/to/.htgroups
Require group groupname1 groupname2 groupname3...
<&lt;/pre>&gt;
And in the ''.htgroups'' file would be:
<&lt;pre>&gt;
Groupname1: username1 username2 username3 ...
Groupname2: username1 username4 username5 ....
<&lt;/pre>&gt;
As you can see a username may be in as many group as you like while others may just be in 1.
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